Homeostatic mechanisms maintain stable neuronal and circuit function in the brain, in particular during development and learning, when synapses undergo constant changes. Synaptic scaling is a form of homeostatic synaptic plasticity responsible for maintaining neuronal network activity within a physiological range, mainly through the regulation of AMPA receptors at synaptic sites. However, the intrinsic mechanisms promoting synaptic scaling are still largely unknown. We have uncovered miR-186-5p as an activity-regulated miRNA, which targets the GluA2 AMPA receptor subunit and mediates synaptic scaling triggered by prolonged blockade of synaptic activity.

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